The pea aphid, a type of insect, contains light-capturing pigments in its exoskeleton. pea aphids gained the ability to synthesize these pigments from genes transferred from fungi. while pea aphids do not have chloroplasts or fix carbon, researchers have found that pea aphids with more pigments have higher levels of atp than those with fewer pigments. pea aphids also have been shown to increase production of atp when exposed to sunlight. based on this information, is the pea aphid a true autotroph?
photosynthesis is a endergornic reaction in photosynthesis the energy is stored while respiration is exorgonic r/n in respiration energy is release.
photosynthesis= 6co2 + 6h2o + light== c6h12o + 6o2
respiration= c6h12o + 6o2 = 6co2 + 6h2o + atp
net gain atps are 38 but 2 atps is used in glycolysis so in respiration totall net gain of atp's are 36.
the correct answer is c. e trend toward a sporophyte-dominated life cycle
1) homologous features:
these are the features or structures that have similar structure in several different organisms but function in a unique way in all of them. these structures indicate anatomical similarities as well as same ancestry of different organisms. for example, the forelimb of birds, humans, dogs and whales, perform different function in all these organisms. but when we analyse the layout of bones or layout of arrangement, we find that it is very similar across all of them. this indicates that, the ancestor of all these organisms was was, but with the passage of time when organism dispersed, and environmental conditions changed, it was evolved into different organisms as per favorable conditions.
2) molecular biology:
as we know that all living organisms are a compilation of billions and trillions of unique biological molecules, that group in unique fashion to constitute whole organism. interestingly, some biological molecules and the process of their formation can provide sound evidences of evolution. for example, dna, sequence of nucleotide in dna, amino acids, process of transcription, translation etc.
the study of evolution through molecular uniformity has led to the foundation of a novel branch of evolution called phylogenetics. the sequence of nucleotides in dna is used to find the best possible ancestor of any organism. for example, phylogenetic analysis has found that the origin of eukaryotes is from prokaryotes over the period of time.
3) fossil records:
fossils are the preserved remains of previously living organisms or their traces, dating from the distant past. this don't means that fossils represent complete skeleton of an organism, because many organisms don't even fossilize and those who fossilize don't have complete remains.nonetheless, the fossils that humans have collected offer unique insights into evolution over long timescales. for example, study of horse fossils has enabled the scientists to reconstruct a large, branching "family tree" for horses and their now-extinct relatives.
interferons refer to small proteins discharged by the stimulated lymphocytes, virus-affected tissues, and macrophages. they activate antiviral proteins in the cytoplasm of the nearby cells. they do not inhibit the entry of viruses, however, they interfere with the replication of viruses. it also instigates the activities of natural killer cells and macrophages. the three types of interferons are alpha interferons, beta interferons, and gamma interferons.
the complement system refers to a segment of the immune system, which elevates or complements the tendency of the phagocytic cells and antibodies to clear the destructed cells and microbes from an organism, attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane, and promotes inflammation.