a: ribosome c: translation
during transcription, the two dna strands unwind and separate. free ribonucleotides combine to the corresponding bases in the template strand, which is one of the separated dna strands. these ribonucleotides will form a mrna, which can leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm.
in cytoplasm, mrna will be translated into protein by ribosomes. during translation, the mrna inside the ribosome will be attached to trna molecules, which will then attract specific amino acids. different trna molecules bond with the corresponding segments of the mrna and different amino acids will be joining together by peptide bond. a protein is then produced.
in bryophyes(mosses and liverworts, the dominant generation is haploid. so that the gametophyte comprises what we think of as the main plant. the opposite is true for tracheophytes(vascular plants), in which the diploid generation is dominmant and the sporophyte compreses the main plant.
extinct organisms; that is, they belong to species that are no longer living anywhere on earth. (3) the kinds of fossils found in rocks of different ages differ because life on earth has changed through time.