it has to be 2%
what is the rate law for the uncatalyzed reaction?
metals often form several cations with different charges. cerium, for example, forms and ions, and thallium forms and ions. cerium and thallium ions react as follows:
2ce^4+(aq) + tl^+(aq) > 2ce^3+(aq)+tl^3+(aq)
this reaction is very slow and is thought to occur in a single elementary step. the reaction is catalyzed by the addition of mn^2+ according to the following mechanism:
ce^4+(aq)+mn^2+(aq) > ce^3+(aq)+mn^3+(aq)
ce^4+(aq)+mn^3+(aq) > ce^3+ (aq) + mn^4+ (aq)
mn^4+(aq) + tl^+(aq) > mn^2+(aq) + tl^3+(aq)
if the uncatalyzed reaction occurs in a single elementary step, why is it a slow reaction?
1)the probability of an effective three-particle collision is low.
2) the transition state is low in energy.
3) the reaction requires the collision of three particles with the correct energy and orientation.
4) all reactions that occur in one step are slow.
the catalyzed reaction is first order in [ce^4+] and first order in [mn^2+]. which of the steps in the catalyzed mechanism is rate determining?
based on their available oxidation states, rank the following metals on their ability to catalyze this and other oxidation-reduction reactions.
rank from best to worst catalyst.
vanadium, titanium, manganese
in the majority of the power plants, there is a need to spin a turbine in order to produce electricity. natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, and oil, utilize their fuel to convert water into steam and use that steam to turn the turbine. however, nuclear plants are distinct as they do not burn anything to produce steam, in spite, they dissociate the atoms of uranium in the process known as fission.
as an outcome, unlike other sources of energy, the nuclear power plants do not discharge pollutants like sulfur oxides and nitrogen into the air. the nuclear reactors are created to maintain an ongoing chain of the fission reaction. they are occupied with a uniquely created, solid uranium fuel and surrounded by water that in the procedure.
with the start of the reactor, the atoms of uranium will split, discharging heat and neutrons. these neutrons will stimulate other atoms of uranium and makes them to dissociate and to carry the procedure, producing more heat and more neutrons. this heat is used to produce the steam, which will rotate a turbine that powers a generator to produce electricity.