The kinetics of the austenite-to-pearlite transformation obey the avrami relationship.
using the fraction transformed–time data given here, determine the total time required for 95% of the austenite to transform to pearlite.
on/off components of a pid controlled accumulates the error over time and responds to system error after the error has been accumulated.
by increasing magnification you decrease the field of view.
the answer is a.
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to convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator.