the inca empire developed in the andes mountains of south america. the incas had originally settled in a valley of the andes mountains around 1100. by 1400, the inca began extending their rule across the andes. the incas built roads stretching over ten thousand miles to unite their vast empire.
the german, irish and italian immigrants who arrived in america during the 1800s often faced prejudice and mistrust. many had to overcome language barriers. others discovered that the challenges they had fled from, such as poverty or religious persecution, were to be encountered in america as well.