the z-score = (x - m) / d where m = the mean, d = the standard deviation and x is the individual score.
chris: z-score = (185.13 - 185.52) / 0.327
karen: z-score = (110.13 - 110.3) / 0.106
a dilation is a type of transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure by a scale factor,
in the dilation about origin by a scale factor k,
the coordinates of the transformed figure can be get by the following rule,
here k = 4,
thus, the dilation rule will be,