"what changes have occurred in the lobbying environment over the past three or four decades?
a) there is more professional lobbying.
b) many interests lobby both the national government and the states.
c) a fragmentation of interests has taken place.
d) all the above"
i think the answer is b) urbanization
deviance from social norms have severe social sanctions - harsh forms like getting locked up in prison, and subtle forms like being ignored or taunted. but it is not absolutely necessary to obey social norms. you can associate with other people who just like you don’t agree with certain norms. you may create a counter culture, and with enough members, your culture may get acceptance as minority view, and you may even get protection under certain constitutions if you assert your “group” as a religious sect.
ps: norms are norms because they are accepted by people. once their defiance by majority starts they are no longer norms.
hope this : )